TAKAO 599 MUSEUM

Treasures of Mt. Takao

Insects

Mt. Takao is considered one of the three major habitat of insects along with Minoo (Osaka prefecture) and Kibune (Kyoto prefecture) and it has long been loved by researchers of insects because of number of species and the easy access from the Metropolitan area. There are many insects first found in Mt. Takao and named after "Takao" such as Takao Shachihoko (Hiradonta takaonis Matsumura) and Takao medaka kamikiri (Stenhomalus takaosanus).

  • Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper) Lycaenidae
    Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper)
    Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper) Lycaenidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okushiri Island, Rishiri Island, Tanega Island and Yaku Island.
    Found in grasslands and small grass fields from flatlands to mountains.
    Wing color on the front of fore wings is orange with brown edges and black spots inside of these edges.
    Some look black-brown without this red-brown color.
    The back of fore wings is widely red-brown and hind wings is darker red-brown belt-like patterns on edges.
    Fly closer to the ground and feed on nectar of flowers including annual fleabane.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of common sorrel and rumex japonicus.

    ●Wingspan  about 27 to 35 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about November
  • Japonica lutea (Orange Hairstreak) Lycaenidae
    Japonica lutea (Orange Hairstreak)
    Japonica lutea (Orange Hairstreak) Lycaenidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island and Awaji Island.
    Wing color on the front is rather orange than red with black on tips.
    Have some reddish parts on the back with black spots and some light white lines in the center.
    Habitat area is deciduous broad-leaved forest from flatlands to mountains.
    During daytime, adults rest under the trees of quercus serrata and quercus acutissima that caterpillars feed on and become active in late afternoon and feed on nectar of Japanese chestnuts.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of quercus serrata, quercus acutissima, quercus crispula blume and daimyo oak.
    Adults emerge from about May and live only for one month.

    ●Wingspan  about 35 to 42 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about June
  • Favonius orientalis (Oriental Hairstreak) Lycaenidae
    Favonius orientalis (Oriental Hairstreak)
    Favonius orientalis (Oriental Hairstreak) Lycaenidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and some parts of Kyushu.
    Found in woods and forests from flatlands to high elevations.
    Wing color of male is metallic blue with thin black edges that are very beautiful.
    Female is somber with dark brown.
    The back of wings is gray-white with orange spots at the bottom of hind wings.
    Male holds territory at mountain peaks and mountain ridges and fly routinely within the territory.
    Is active mainly in the morning and feed on nectar of Japanese chestnuts.
    Female is not as active as male and rest on grasslands and under the trees of quercus serrata, quercus crispula blume and quercus acutissima.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants including quercus serrata, quercus acutissima and daimyo oak.
    Adults emerge in early summer and live only for about one month.

    ●Wingspan  about 35 to 40 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about July
  • Parnara guttata (Straight Swift) Hesperiidae
    Parnara guttata (Straight Swift)
    Parnara guttata (Straight Swift) Hesperiidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Nansei Islands.
    Found in forests and grasslands from flatlands to low elevations, and also at parks in cities.
    With the body color, this species is often considered as moths.
    (In reality, there is no clear distinction from butterflies and moths.)
    Wing color on the front is brown and hind wings have distinct white dots creating one line, hence the Japanese name Ichimonji-seseri one straight line hesperiidae.
    Is active during daytime and feed on nectar of flowers, and also on rotten fruits and dungs of animals.
    Caterpillars feed on rice and green bristlegrass.
    Tends to gather in groups, thus groups with large numbers of this species are seen sometimes.

    ●Wingspan  about 35 to 40 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about November
  • Thoressa varia (Japanese Swift) Hesperiidae
    Thoressa varia (Japanese Swift)
    Thoressa varia (Japanese Swift) Hesperiidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests and bushes from flatlands to mountains.
    Often found in bamboo bushes with sasa veitchii and sasa nipponica as caterpillars feed on plants in sasa genus.
    Wing color on the front is brown-black and yellow-brown closer to the body with some white spots.
    On the back is yellow-brown with black lined wing veins and some whitish yellow spots.
    Fly fast and straight in bamboo bushes and woods during daytime and feed on nectar of boneset and azalea, and also on dungs of animals.
    Suck water in groups. Male holds territory.

    ●Wingspan  about 30 to 36 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about September
  • Potanthus flavus (Japanese Dart) Hesperiidae
    Potanthus flavus (Japanese Dart)
    Potanthus flavus (Japanese Dart) Hesperiidae
    Main Region: South part of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tanega Island and Yaku Island.
    Found in sunny grasslands around forests from low elevations, hills and mountains.
    Japanese name Kimadara-seseri literally meaning yellow irregularly patterned hesperiidae comes from its yellow irregularly placed pattern on brown wings.
    Have similar patterns on both sides of wings but is yellow-brown on the back with less distinct patterns.
    Adults fly from summer and feed on nectar of annual fleabane and Japanese thistle.
    Suck water on the ground.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of poaceae family including Miscanthus sinensis, job's tears and Pleioblastus chino.
    Tips of wings are sharp for male and round for female.

    ●Wingspan  about 26 to 32 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about September
  • Ochlodes ochraceus Hesperiidae
    Ochlodes ochraceus
    Ochlodes ochraceus Hesperiidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests, plateaus, forest trails from low elevations to mountains.
    Japanese name Hime-kimadara-seseri literally meaning small yellow irregularly patterned hesperiidae (The Japanese Dart) but this species is about the same size with the Japanese Dart.
    Wing color is reddish yellow with black-brown edges.
    Patterns are rather net-like appearance not irregularly placed patterns that is distinguish them from the Japanese Dart.
    Wings of female are dark brown with some yellow spots.
    The back of wings for both male and female is orange to light yellow-brown and have stripe patterns along wing veins.
    Fly fast closer to the ground in forests during daytime.
    Feed on nectar of annual fleabane and azalea.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of poaceae family including Oplismenus undulatifolius and yamakamo-ashiboso(in Microstegium genus).

    ●Wingspan  about 25 to 30 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about September
  • Daimio Tethys (China Flat) Hesperiidae
    Daimio Tethys (China Flat)
    Daimio Tethys (China Flat) Hesperiidae
    Main Region: Some parts of southern Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests from flatlands to low elevations.
    Adults flight season is from spring to early autumn.
    Fly fast and often seen in woody forests.
    Fore wings are black-brown with three large white spots in the middle, and also some small white spots towards tips of wings.
    These patterns vary depending on living areas.
    Ones in west of Kinki region have white spots on the back of hind wings connecting to the patterns on fore wings creating belt-like patterns.
    Feed on nectar of annual fleabane and azalea, also on dungs of animals and suck water.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of Japanese yam.
    Male holds territory and shows strong territorial habit.

    ●Wingspan  about 33 to 36 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about October
  • Erynnis montanus (Spring Flat) Hesperiidae
    Erynnis montanus (Spring Flat)
    Erynnis montanus (Spring Flat) Hesperiidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in sunny deciduous broad-leaved forests and open woods from flatlands to mountains.
    Wing color is brown with complicated wavy patterns on fore wings that these patterns on male are purple-gray and on female are bright white belt-like patterns.
    Both sides of hind wings have yellow spots.
    Fly in forests during daytime and feed on flowers of azalea and dandelions.
    Often rest on ground with wings opened for sun.
    Adults flight season is short, from March to about April.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of quercus acutissima, quercus serrata and daimyo oak.

    ●Wingspan  about 36 to 40 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about April
  • Isoteinon lamprospilus (The Silver-spotted Skipper) Hesperiidae
    Isoteinon lamprospilus (The Silver-spotted Skipper)
    Isoteinon lamprospilus (The Silver-spotted Skipper) Hesperiidae
    Main Region: Honshu (West of southern Tohoku region), Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests and grasslands from flatlands to low elevations.
    Wing color is black-brown and yellow-brown closer to the body.
    The front of fore wings has some large white spots.
    Wing color on the back is yellow-brown with white spots on black edges that are unique to this species.
    Feed on nectar of Lysimachia clethroides and annual fleabane.
    Suck water at where is some moisture.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in poaceae family including spodiopogon sibiricus and miscanthus tinctorius hack.
    Male holds territory over these plants in poaceae family.

    ●Wingspan  about 32 to 37 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about August
  • Antheraea yamamai (Japanese Oak Silkmoth) Saturniidae
    Antheraea yamamai (Japanese Oak Silkmoth)
    Antheraea yamamai (Japanese Oak Silkmoth) Saturniidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in woods and forests from flatlands to mountains.
    The large species become up to 15 cm and it is the largest species in moths.
    Are often found in mountains and used to reel silk off from cocoons of this species, hence the Japanese name Yama-mayu literally meaning mountain cocoons.
    Wings are red-brown to ocher depends on individual species with long dark brown line along the edges.
    Have eyespots in the center of wings.
    Antennae differ from male and female, male is feathery and female is comb-like shaped.
    Are active at night and often attracted to lights.
    Adults do not feed on anything and live on nutrients reserved as caterpillars.
    Caterpillars feed on quercus acutissima and quercus serrata.
    Color of cocoons is similar to silkworm but this species are light green.

    ●Wingspan  about 110 to 150 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  August to about September
  • Saturnia jonasii Saturniidae
    Saturnia jonasii
    Saturnia jonasii Saturniidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in forests and woods from flatlands to mountains.
    Japanese name Hime-yamma-mayu literally meaning small Japanese oak silkmoth came from its body size smaller than Japaanese oak silkmoth.
    Wing colors are smoky green and front part of fore wings is white.
    Edges of wings are brown and each wing has large eyespots in the center.
    Some species have red-brown edges and yellow-brown wing colors.
    Are seen from later season than Japanese oak silkmoth and active at night.
    Adults do not feed on anything like other species in saturniidae family.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of quercus acutissima, deutzia crenata and Japanese zelkova.

    ●Wingspan  about 85 to 105 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  September to about November
  • Saturnia japonica Saturniidae
    Saturnia japonica
    Saturnia japonica Saturniidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima and Yaku Island. Found in forests and woods from flatlands to mountains. Japanese name is Kusu-san literally meaning silkworm on camphor laurel. Body color varies to individuals among the same species from yellow-brown, red-brown to orange. Hind wings have distinct eyespots in the center and the ones on fore wings are not as distinct but have patterns resembling side face of lizard. Are attracted to lights at night with Japanese oak silkmoth and rest under the eaves nearby. Caterpillars are green with white long hair and are also known as Shiraga-taro literally meaning white haired boy. Feed on camphor laurel, Japanese zelkova and ginkgo. Cocoons are like mesh with and also called as Sukashi-tawara literally meaning sheer rice straw bag and the empty ones are often found in grasslands near forest trails.

    ●Wingspan  about 100 to 120 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season August to about October
  • Actias artemis Saturniidae
    Actias artemis
    Actias artemis Saturniidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in forests and plateaus from flatlands to mountains.
    Wing colors is blue-white to light green with front part of fore wing edges are red.
    Have small eyespots on both fore and hind wings.
    Antennae are feathery for male and comb-like shaped for female.
    Tails are longer for male than female.
    Adults flight season are twice per year, early summer and mid summer from July to August.
    Are often attracted to lights.
    Mouthparts of adults are degenerated in the imago and do not eat anything and only live on nutrients reserved as caterpillars.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of trees including quercus serrata, ume (Japanese apricot), apricot, fig, pear and apple.

    ●Wingspan  about 80 to 120 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about May, July to about August
  • Catocala nivea Noctuidae
    Catocala nivea
    Catocala nivea Noctuidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests and green spaces from low elevations to mountains.
    Fore wings is gray-brown with shaded patterns resembling barks and hind wings is white with two black belt-like patterns.
    Hind wings are hidden behind fore wings and fore wings mimic barks so it is difficult to find when resting on barks.
    When receiving any stimulus from something, open fore wings to show hind wings that are said to threat enemies.
    During daytime, are often rest on trunks and branches of trees.
    Become active at night and fly to various trees for sap.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in rosaceae family including Japanese bird cherry.

    ●Wingspan  about 80 to 95 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  July to about October
※Quotation from Mount Takao formula application
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