TAKAO 599 MUSEUM

Treasures of Mt. Takao

Insects

Mt. Takao is considered one of the three major habitat of insects along with Minoo (Osaka prefecture) and Kibune (Kyoto prefecture) and it has long been loved by researchers of insects because of number of species and the easy access from the Metropolitan area. There are many insects first found in Mt. Takao and named after "Takao" such as Takao Shachihoko (Hiradonta takaonis Matsumura) and Takao medaka kamikiri (Stenhomalus takaosanus).

  • Biston robustus 尺蛾科
    Biston robustus
    Biston robustus 尺蛾科
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Izu Islands, Tsushima and Nansei Islands.
    Found in woods and green spaces from flatlands to low elevations.
    Wing colors is gray to brown like with bark-like patterns that is difficult to find when resting on trees. There are a lot of moths like these patterns but some could be recognized with paired patterns and unnatural depth on trees.
    This species are large in geometridae family and seen from March to April.
    Male are often attracted to lights.
    Caterpillars are inchworms resembling tree branches and feed on leaves of various kinds of plants including apple, pairs, camellia, Japanese chestnuts, quercus acutissima and quercus serrata.

    ●Wingspan  about 40 to 75 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about April
  • Erannis golda 尺蛾科
    Erannis golda
    Erannis golda 尺蛾科
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa.
    Found in woods and surrounding green spaces from flatlands to mountains.
    One of few species active during winter and adults flight season is from late autumn to midwinter, January.
    Fore wings are brown to yellow-brown with dark belt-like patterns as Japanese name Cha-bane-fuyu-eda-shaku literally meaning brown wings winter branches Geometridae states.
    Similar erannis defoliaria gigantea inoue can be distinguished by this belt-like patterns are widely curved. Hind wings are lighter brown than fore wings.
    Female body length is 11 to 15 cm without wings and only walk with long and strong legs.
    Body shape is similar to caterpillars of shield bugs and body color is white with black spots.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of various plants including quercus serrata, poplar, willow, rose and azalea.

    ●Wingspan  about 34 to 45 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  November to about January
  • Ourapteryx nivea 尺蛾科
    Ourapteryx nivea
    Ourapteryx nivea 尺蛾科
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Nansei Islands.
    Found in all over Japan, in forests and surrounding grasslands from flatlands to mountains.
    In Mt. Takao, often found on leaves in mountain trails. Wing color is white.
    Fore wings have two brown belt-like patterns with fine scratchy patterns.
    Similar ourapteryx maculicaudaria can be distinguished by not having these scratchy patterns and looks rather white.
    Have sharp tails with two red-brown spots.
    Female are larger than male.
    Are seen from early summer to autumn and fly to various flowers for nectar.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of various plants in fagaceae, ulmaceae, fabaceae and caprifoliaceae family.

    ●Wingspan  about 36 to 59 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about October
  • 双白毛漆尺蛾 尺蛾科
    双白毛漆尺蛾
    双白毛漆尺蛾 尺蛾科
    分布在北海道、本州、四国、九州、御藏岛一带,从低矮山地到山林绿地、沿河一带林道都可繁衍生息。翅展不到3cm,属于小型蛾类,多生活在略潮湿的树荫下、沿河一带的草地等区域。翅为黑色,中央有白色带状条纹。存在个体差异,有些成虫翅缘和翅根有白色斑点或白色条纹状斑纹。在白天活动,飞舞的样子常被误认为是蝴蝶。成虫一年有2次活动期,分别在初夏和盛夏。吸食多种植物的花蜜。幼虫以山粗齿绣球花的树叶为食。

    ●翅展 约20~26mm
    ●成虫活动期 5月、7月~8月
  • Amata fortunei Arctiidae
    Amata fortunei
    Amata fortunei Arctiidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Tsushima.
    Found in woods, green space and open fields from flatlands to low elevations.
    Wing color is black with some transparent spots resembling babies of Japanese deers, hence the Japanese name Kanoko-ga literally meaning Japanese deer baby moths.
    Wings are elongated and body colors are black with yellow belt-like patterns resembling bees.
    Female have thicker abdomen than male.
    Are seen from early summer to early autumn.
    Are active during daytime and feed on nectar of various flowers.
    Caterpillars are black hairy worms and feed on various plants in riverbeds and grasslands including white clovers, dandelions and rumex japonicus.

    ●Wingspan  about 30 to 37 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about September
  • Thyris usitata Thyrididae
    Thyris usitata
    Thyris usitata Thyrididae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island, Tsushima and Chishima Islands.
    Found in woods and surrounding grasslands and fields from flatlands to mountains.
    Wing colors are black and angulated white spots are one paired on fore wings and two paired on hind wings, hence the Japanese name Mado-ga literally meaning window moths.
    Have some yellow spots on entire wings.
    Head and the back of thorax are yellow and resemble butterflies in hesperiidae family.
    Are seen from early spring to summer.
    In Mt. Takao, often found on mountain trails and grasslands along forest trails.
    Are active during daytime and fly to forests and grasslands for nectar.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of clematis apiifolia.

    ●Wingspan  about 14 to 17 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about September
  • Nemophora aurifera Adelidae
    Nemophora aurifera
    Nemophora aurifera Adelidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island and Tsushima.
    Found in woods and green spaces from flatlands to mountains.
    Wing color is metallic and shiny and differs from gold to red-copper by reflection of light.
    Do not look like moths with golden belt-like patterns run horizontally at the bottom of fore wings.
    Japanese name Hoso-obi-hige-naga literally meaning thin belt with long antennae was named because of their long antennae and its lengths for male are triple the body length and 1.2 times longer for female.
    Half part of antennae is feathery and black.
    Are seen from early summer and active during daytime and feed on nectar.
    Often found even in nearby fields or grasslands.
    Male flies in groups within forests.

    ●Wingspan  about 15 to 22 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about May
  • Epicopeia hainesii Epicopeiidae
    Epicopeia hainesii
    Epicopeia hainesii Epicopeiidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Tsushima.
    Found in forests and grasslands from flatlands to mountains.
    Are parts of moth family but body mimic Chinese windmill that is toxic by eating poisonous plants, hence the Japanese name Ageha-modoki literally meaning swallowtail mimic.
    Wing veins are distinctive black and gray-black wings are almost like Chinese windmill with big long tails but red spots on edges of hind wings are brighter and body size is a lot smaller.
    Are active from late afternoon and attracted to lights but found on leaves even during daytime.
    Fly by flattering wings to fields and woods for nectar.
    The body of caterpillars are covered with white cotton-like covering and feed on leaves of kouza dogwood and giant dogwood.

    ●Wingspan  about 55 to 60 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about August
  • Psychostrophia melanargia Epicopeiidae
    Psychostrophia melanargia
    Psychostrophia melanargia Epicopeiidae
    Main region: Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in woods and green spaces from flatlands to mountains.
    Also often found at parks in forests and even in cities.
    Wing color is black with many light yellow spots.
    With its body color and are active during daytime, are often mistaken as butterflies.
    The size of patterns differs by each species.
    Adults flight season is from May to June and from August to September.
    Fly to various flowers for nectar.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of clethra barbinervis.
    The body of caterpillars is covered with white powdery covering and this powdery covering is also applied to cocoons.

    ●Wingspan  about 32 to 39 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about June, August to about September
  • Cicindela chinensis(Tiger Beetle) Cicindelidae
    Cicindela chinensis(Tiger Beetle)
    Cicindela chinensis(Tiger Beetle) Cicindelidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in sunny woods and forest trails along streams from flatlands to mountains.
    Body color is metallic shiny blue-green with bright red and are known as beautiful insects like jewel beetles.
    Have large compound eyes with large mandibles.
    Feed on insects.
    Aim at insects and catch immediately are just like cats, hence the Japanese name han-myo literally meaning spots-cats.
    When human being approaches and they fly to a couple of meters ahead, this behavior is repeated and like guiding human beings, hence they are also called michi-oshie literally meaning guiding ways.
    Larvae create holes on ground and catch insects like ants that approaches to these holes.

    ●Length  about 18 to 20 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  April to about September
  • Damaster blaptoides Carabidae
    Damaster blaptoides
    Damaster blaptoides Carabidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Goto Islands, Yaku Island and Tanega Island. Found in forests from flatlands to mountains and wet grasslands. Is a part of carabidae family and inhabits only in Japan. Both adults and larvae feed on snails and sticking the head in snail's shells when they eat, hence the Japanese name Maimai-kaburi literally meaning wearing snails. Cannot fly as their wings are deteriorated and do not travel long distance, thus their body color and body shape varies by their living area. Normally categorized to various subspecies by habitat. The ones seen in Mt. Takao are the subspecies called D.b.oxuroides Schaum and have bluish black body color.

    ●Length  about 36 to 41 mm(Carabus blaptoides oxuroides)
    ●Adults Flights Season  April to about October
  • Carabus insulicola Carabidae
    Carabus insulicola
    Carabus insulicola Carabidae
    Main Region: Honshu (North of Chubu area).
    Found in woods and green space from flatlands to mountains.
    This species of carabidae family are most frequently seen in Kanto region.
    Body color is beautiful metallic green and some species are red-copper color.
    Have some fine stripes on fore wings.
    Cannot fly with deteriorated hind wings just like other species in carabidae family.
    Does not prefer sunny places and mostly stay under fallen leaves, in soils and under fallen woods.
    Active at night, walk around and feed on larvae of earthworms and moths and woodlouse.
    Also often gather around dead small animals.
    Larvae are also predatory and feed on small insects.

    ●Length  about 25 to 30 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  April to about October
  • Carabus albrechti esakianus Carabidae
    Carabus albrechti esakianus
    Carabus albrechti esakianus Carabidae
    Are subspecies of carabus albrechti Morawitz found from Hokkaido to middle of Honshu and distributed from Kanto region to Niigata prefecture. They are same species but categorized as different group by region. The species in carabidae family are often seen around Tokyo area like carabus insulicola. Found in woods and surrounding green spaces from flatlands to mountains. Body color is metallic shine red-copper but some species are without shines. Fore sings have fine stripes and cannot fly with deteriorated hind wings. During daytime, hide under woods and fallen leaves or are active in shady area. Become active at night, walk around and feed on small insects, woodlouse and earthworm.

    ●Length  about 20 to 23 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  April to about October
  • Chlaenius micans Carabidae
    Chlaenius micans
    Chlaenius micans Carabidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, Miyako Island and Ishigaki Island.
    Found in woods and surrounding green spaces from flatlands to low elevations and also in croplands and riverbeds.
    Have yellow-brown paired spots on the bottom of fore wings as the Japanese name Oo-ato-boshi-aogomimushi literally meaning large back stars carabidae states.
    Head and thorax are shiny blue-green and fore wings are copperish.
    Golden hair is covered on the back so the shiny texture on body is not visible.
    During daytime, walk around and feed on small insects including larvae of moths and flies and dead animals. Larvae feed on the same with adults.
    Are attracted to lights.

    ●Length  about 15 to 18 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  May to about October
  • Macrodorcus rectus Lucanidae
    Macrodorcus rectus
    Macrodorcus rectus Lucanidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Izu Islands, Sado Island, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in mountainous forests or woodlands.
    Often seen in Takao from early summer to autumn.
    Has small body but some big adults have outstanding mandibles.
    Are less active during daytime and likely to hide in hollow of trees or space at tree base and become more active after sunset.
    Fly to quercus serrata or quercus acutissima for sap.
    Able to hide and suck sap in hollow space under the bark of tree where large lucanidae cannot go into.

    ●Length (including mandible)   about 20 to 55 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about September
※Quotation from Mount Takao formula application
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