TAKAO 599 MUSEUM

Treasures of Mt. Takao

Insects

Mt. Takao is considered one of the three major habitat of insects along with Minoo (Osaka prefecture) and Kibune (Kyoto prefecture) and it has long been loved by researchers of insects because of number of species and the easy access from the Metropolitan area. There are many insects first found in Mt. Takao and named after "Takao" such as Takao Shachihoko (Hiradonta takaonis Matsumura) and Takao medaka kamikiri (Stenhomalus takaosanus).

  • Psacothea hilaris(Yellow-spotted Longicorn Beetle) Cerambycidae
    Psacothea hilaris(Yellow-spotted Longicorn Beetle)
    Psacothea hilaris(Yellow-spotted Longicorn Beetle) Cerambycidae
    Main region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Oki Island, Iki Island and Tsushima.
    Found in forests from flatlands to low elevations but also in farmlands and street trees in cities.
    Have long antennae and that of male is three times longer than the body size.
    Body color is black with white-yellow to yellow spots.
    Are seen from early summer to early autumn and feed on leaves and barks of fig tree, mulberry and plants in rutaceae family with its strong mandibles.
    Are also attracted to lights.
    Female adults make cracks to these trees and lay eggs.
    Hatched larvae feed within these trees and grow.

    ●Length  about 14 to 30 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about November
  • Eutetrapha ocelota Cerambycidae
    Eutetrapha ocelota
    Eutetrapha ocelota Cerambycidae

    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island, Oki Islands, Tsushima, Tanega Island and Yaku Island.

    Found in forests and green spaces from flatlands to mountains.

    Body is covered by short hair and looks yellow to blue-green depends on the different shades of the hair. Eight black spots along the edges of hard outer wings, hence the Japanese name Yatsu-me-kamikiri literally meaning eight eyes cerambycidae.

    Two black spots on head and four on thorax are regularly placed that is said to be imitating parmotrema tinctorum often grow on barks of ume (Japanese apricot) and cherry blossoms.

    Are seen from early summer and feed on barks of old woods, deadwoods and fallen woods of prunus sargentii, ume (Japanese apricot), Cerasus ×yedoensis (Matsum.) A.V.Vassil. 'Somei- yoshino', Japanese lime.

    Are often attracted to lights.

    Larvae feed on woods in amygdaloideae sub-family like adults.


    ●Length  about 10 to 18 mm

    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about July

  • Paraglenea fortune(Ramie Longicorn Beetle) Cerambycidae
    Paraglenea fortune(Ramie Longicorn Beetle)
    Paraglenea fortune(Ramie Longicorn Beetle) Cerambycidae
    Main region: Honshu (West of Kanto region), Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima, Oki Island and Tanega Island.
    Found in woods and surrounding green space from flatlands to mountains.
    This is a foreign species came to Nagasaki port with ramie in urticaceae family imported from China during Edo-period.
    Main region came up north due to global warming.
    Body color is beautiful with white-green and large black spots.
    There were not any in Mt. Takao but started to be seen from early 1990s.
    Is now one of the species in cerambycidae often seen from May to August.
    Are active during daytime and feed on leaves and stems of ramie, boehmeria nivea var. nipononivea, boehmeria japonica, Japanese lime and hibiscus syriacus.
    Larvae feed on stems and roots of same plants that adults feed on.

    ●Length  about 10 to 20 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about August
  • Batocera lineolata (White Stripe Long-horned Beetle) Cerambycidae
    Batocera lineolata (White Stripe Long-horned Beetle)
    Batocera lineolata (White Stripe Long-horned Beetle) Cerambycidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island, Oki Island, Tsushima and Amami Island.
    Found in forests and green space from flatlands to mountains.
    Is the largest species in longicorn native to Japan and the large ones become almost 6 cm.
    Body color is black covered with gray short hairs.
    Have yellow irregular stripes on fore wings but these patterns fade to white when mounted, hence the Japanese name Shirosuji-kamikiri literally meaning white stripes longicorn.
    Have large compound eyes and well developed mandibles.
    Are active at night but sometime even during daytime.
    Adults feed on barks of trees in salicaceae, juglandaceae, betulaceae, fagaceae and ulmaceae grow in wood and also feed on sap of these trees.
    Larvae feed on woods of Japanese chestnuts, quercus acutissima and trees in castanopsis family.

    ●Length  about 45 to 55 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  June to about August
  • Paracycnotrachelus longicornis Attelabidae
    Paracycnotrachelus longicornis
    Paracycnotrachelus longicornis Attelabidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in woods and grasslands from flatlands to mountains.
    Body color varies among individuals of the same species, some have yellow-brown but most of them have glossy red-brown to dark-brown.
    Male and female are different in body shape, male have elongated head and thorax with long antennae, hence the Japanese name Hige-naga-otosibumi literally meaning barbs long attelabidae.
    Male is larger than female. Female does not have long thorax and antennae and resemble apoderus rubidus.
    Are seen from early summer to midsummer.
    Make cradle with leaves of lindera praecox, kobushi magnolia, Japanese knotweed, lindera sericea and lindera erythrocarpa and drop the cradle to the ground.

    ●Length  about 8 to 12 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  May to about July
  • Dermatoxenus caesicollis Curculionidae
    Dermatoxenus caesicollis
    Dermatoxenus caesicollis Curculionidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in woods and surrounding green spaces from flatlands to mountains.
    Body color is mostly gray-white but this is because the entire body is covered by fine powder-like particles that are easy to come off and gradually base color become more distinctive.
    Fore wings are slightly bumpy with paired humps-like protrusions on the lower parts.
    These protrusions are small as the Japanese name Hime-shiro- kobu-zoumushi literally meaning small white humps curculionidae states compare to similar episomus turritus.
    Are seen from spring to summer. Feed on leaves of Japanese aralia, oudo and aralia elata and often rest on leaves of these plants.

    ●Length  about 11 to 14 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  April to about July
  • Lixus impressiventris Curculionidae
    Lixus impressiventris
    Lixus impressiventris Curculionidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Tsushima.
    Found in woods and green space from flatlands to mountains.
    The unique name Katsuo-zoumushi literally meaning bonito curculionidae was named because the body shape is elongated streamline shaped and covered with red-brown powders that resemble dried bonito, katsuo-bushi.
    Somehow the word bushi (ship-shape used to be called) was eliminated from the name of this species.
    When red-brown powders come off, base color of black appears.
    Tips of fore wings are pointed.
    Similar lixus acutipennis have v-shaped black patterns on fore wings and have wider tips Feed on leaves of plants in polygonaceae family including fallopia japonica and water pepper often rest on these leaves.
    Larvae feed on the center portions of stems of the plants adults feed on.

    ●Length  about 10 to 12 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  May to about August
  • Mesalcidodes trifidus Curculionidae
    Mesalcidodes trifidus
    Mesalcidodes trifidus Curculionidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests, surrounding green spaces and grasslands from flatlands to mountains.
    Body color is black with fine hairs are densely placed called scaly hairs and this part looks white.
    The lower parts of fore wings are mostly white, hence the Japanese name Ojiro-ashinaga-zomushi literally meaning tail white long legs curculionidae.
    Long legs curculinidae are only to categorize within curculionidae family and the legs of this species are not long.
    Are seen from spring and larvae feed on leaves of kudzu and often seen on leaves of the plants.
    When noticing danger, fold legs and the entire body become very stiff as if it is dead.
    Female lays eggs by making cuts on stems of kudzu and emerged larvae feed on center portion of the stems and grow.

    ●Length  about 9 to 10 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  April to about October
  • Sipalinus gigas Rhynchophoridae
    Sipalinus gigas
    Sipalinus gigas Rhynchophoridae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, Izu Islands and Tsushima.
    Found in woods and forests from lowlands to mountains.
    Body color is brown with some black spots but originally the base color was black and black body color appears when they live longer.
    Body surface is cast metal-like and very stiff.
    Japanese name Oo-zomushi literally meaning large curculionidae was named because this species have elongated distinct mouthparts like an elephant (curculionidae in Japanese literally meaning elephant insects).
    Are the largest species in curculionidae family in Japan.
    Adults are seen from early summer to midsummer.
    Feed on sap of quercus acutissima and quercus serrata.
    During daytime, rest under fallen trees and deadwoods.
    Adults live for about two years after adult emergence.
    Female lays eggs inside of woods and larvae feed on woods and goes deep inside of woods.

    ●Length  about 12 to 29 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season June to about September
  • Vespa mandarinia japonica(Japanese Giant Hornet) Vespidae
    Vespa mandarinia japonica(Japanese Giant Hornet)
    Vespa mandarinia japonica(Japanese Giant Hornet) Vespidae
    They live widely in Hokkaido, main land Honsyu, Shikoku, Kyusyu as well as Yakushima Island and Tanegashima Island.
    Thought they inhabit in plain ground and low-mountain areas, they also go out to residential districts.
    As largest species of Japanese bees, the striped patterns of thick orange color and black color on their body accentuate them very much.
    Their dwelling is the den made under the ground, where they usually inhabit.
    Carnivorous as they are, their main bait is mainly big insects; meanwhile they attack the other bees’ dwelling in the group so that they can get other’s pupae and larva for their own feed.
    Sap from copse trees is also where they like to gather.
    They are very notorious for its aggressiveness and have deadly poison which can stab human to death.
    The point is that when you see them or hear the sound of flapping wings ‘Buz’, don’t be upset or panicked to leave there at ease.
    Another point to remember is that they gather at sweet drinks or Bento.

    ●Length  about 27 to 45 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season April to about October
  • Vespa simillima xanthoptera Vespidae
    Vespa simillima xanthoptera
    Vespa simillima xanthoptera Vespidae
    They live widely in main land Honsyu, Shikoku, Kyusyu as well as Sado Island, Tsushia Island and Yakushima Island.
    They live near populated area with trees growing thickly or copses in low lands to undeveloped woodlands.
    They are medium size hornet smaller by one size than Japanese giant hornet.
    Worker bees are about 20 mm, male about 20 to 24 mm , Queen Bee about 25 to 28 mm.
    Early spring is the season they begin to appear and start to make their spherical shape beehive in the hollow on the trees or underground.
    Recent years, the problem is they make their beehives such as overhangs of a Japanese roof of residential house, walls of residence in urban areas.
    As its name shows their body color is conspicuous yellow.
    As their characteristic is so offensive that even small stimulus urges them to attack humans.
    Therefore, it’s recommended not to come near even when you happen to see beehives.
    They love nectar or sap, and catch to eat various insects such as cicada at times.

    ●Length  about 20 to 28 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about November
  • Vespula flaviceps lewisii Vespidae
    Vespula flaviceps lewisii
    Vespula flaviceps lewisii Vespidae
    They live widely in Hokkaido, main land Honsyu, Shikoku, Kyusyu as well as Sado Island, Tsushia Islands and Yakushima Island.
    They live at a dense growth of mountain bushes and green, wooden tract near the area in plain ground and mountain areas.
    As the name shows it, their body is characterized of striped pattern of glossy black and white color.
    As the spring comes in, they begin to act out and start to make their den mainly underground.
    Main bait is insects, spiders, larvae of moth which they love to eat.
    Compared with Asian giant hornet and yellow hornet, they are not so offensive and less toxic, but they need to be cautions because this toxin might cause Anaphylaxie shock depending upon citizen.
    They are also well known as ‘Ji-Ba-Chi’ (local bee) and people in Nagano Prefecture have a habit of eating the larvae and pupa.

    ●Length  about 10 to 16 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about November
  • Parapolybia indica indica Vespidae
    Parapolybia indica indica
    Parapolybia indica indica Vespidae
    They live widely in main land Honsyu, Shikoku, Kyusyu as well as Sado Island, Tsushia Islands and Yakushima Island.
    They live in plain ground, woods in the mountainous district, and green tract near the area.
    They are a kind of paper wasp flying with their long rear legs dangling.
    Although Parapolybia indica and Parapolybia varia are similar, the latter bee can be distinguished from the former one by black striped on the head which original breed Parapolybia indica does not have.
    They are named after this fact. Early spring is the time they come out and appear to make breeding hive on the leaves and at the back of leaves of shrubs.
    The body color characteristic is slightly shaded yellow and mottled pattern of pale brown.
    Though thin sized and small, they are exceedingly offensive.
    At the best time for their breeding season, more than 100 working bees are there at the beehive.
    Thus, be sure to remember not to come closer to the beehive.
    Main bait is insects such as larvae of moth.

    ●Length  about 14 to 20 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about October
  • Xylocopa appendiculata Apidae
    Xylocopa appendiculata
    Xylocopa appendiculata Apidae
    They live widely in main land Honsyu, Shikoku, Kyusyu as well as Tsushima Island and Yakushima Island.
    Thought they inhabit at copse at the mountain areas, and around the green tract areas in plan ground, consequently, we can see them in the garden or park in residential districts.
    Early spring to early summer, they boom out to appear for various flowers to collect pollen and nectar for their own bait.
    Male Apidae has their own territory at the mountain ridge or plain field and we can sometimes see them watching to protect their own territory while they’re hovering.
    They dig out shrub or withered branch for breeding place to raise their children in there.
    As their sounds of wings are loud and they are densely covered with thick hair, we tend to be afraid of them, but the fact is they’re docile and hardly attack human.

    ●Length  about 20 to 24 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about October
  • Cyphononyx dorsalis Pompilidae
    Cyphononyx dorsalis
    Cyphononyx dorsalis Pompilidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. Is a group of bees catch spiders for larvae and found in areas where many spiders inhabit such as edges of forests, grasslands with some trees. The Japanese name Bekko-bachi literally meaning amber bee because the body color is reddish yellow that is like the color of tortoise of hawksbill turtle. Act in solo and does not create own nest but dig a hall, put some spiders and lay eggs, thus larvae can live by consuming the spiders. Spiders do not go bad because they are paralyzed with bee sting.

    ●Length  about 17 to 25 mm
    ●Adults Flights Season  July to about September
※Quotation from Mount Takao formula application
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