TAKAO 599 MUSEUM

Treasures of Mt. Takao

Insects

Mt. Takao is considered one of the three major habitat of insects along with Minoo (Osaka prefecture) and Kibune (Kyoto prefecture) and it has long been loved by researchers of insects because of number of species and the easy access from the Metropolitan area. There are many insects first found in Mt. Takao and named after "Takao" such as Takao Shachihoko (Hiradonta takaonis Matsumura) and Takao medaka kamikiri (Stenhomalus takaosanus).

  • Camponotus japonicas Formicidae
    Camponotus japonicas
    Camponotus japonicas Formicidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima and Yaku Island. Found in grasslands from flatlands to mountains. Create nest in open ground, thus often found at parks and gardens even in cities. Is the largest species in formicidae native to Japan, worker ants are about 10 mm and queen ant is 17 mm. Body color is black with brownish abdomen. Live in a large colony with a queen ant in underground lair. Catching foods are the job for worker ants. Work in solo or with some and feed on dead insects and body fluids of plant louse. From May to June, male ant with wings and queen ant come out from lair for marriage flight. When they are back on ground, female ant drop wings and create another lair. Take care of some of emerged ants in early stages but once they become worker ants, she becomes queen ant continuously lay eggs.

    ●Length  about 7 to 13 mm (Worker ants)
    ●Adults Flights Season   April to about November
  • Camponotus obscuripes Formicidae
    Camponotus obscuripes
    Camponotus obscuripes Formicidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yaku Island and Tsushima.
    Found in forests and grasslands from flatlands to mountains.
    Are the largest species like camponotus japonicus habit in Japan and its queen ant is nearly 2 cm.
    Color of head and legs are black and that of thorax and the front part of abdomen are red-brown.
    Some species have red-brown color only on thorax.
    Hardly ever seen in cities as they normally built a next in dead woods or root of tree in forests not in soils. Worker ants are often seen on grounds, generally work in solo and do not form a line.
    Feed on dead insects and aphid honeydew.

    ●Length  about 7 to 12 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  May to about October
  • Orthetrum albistylum speciosum (Common Skimmer) Libellulidae
    Orthetrum albistylum speciosum (Common Skimmer)
    Orthetrum albistylum speciosum (Common Skimmer) Libellulidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa.
    Found in sunny grassland at waterside of ponds from flatland to low elevations.
    Also fly to puddles and one of the dragonflies frequently found in town.
    Right after adult emergence in spring, both male and female body colors are brownish yellow with black dots on abdomen.
    Only male bodies gradually turn to black with age and from thorax to middle of abdomen are covered by powdery white like salt.
    This is the origin of Japanese name Shiokara-Tombo literally meaning salted fish guts dragonfly.
    Female body color does not change and also called as Mugiwara-Tombo literally meaning straw dragonfly.
    Female hovers over water to dip down the tip of abdomen to lay eggs.

    ●Length  about49 to 55 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about September
  • Orthetrum triangulare melania Libellulidae
    Orthetrum triangulare melania
    Orthetrum triangulare melania Libellulidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa.
    Found in forests, fields and at waterside of paddy fields and streams from flatlands to low elevations.
    Prefer shadowy environment like under the shade of trees.
    Body size is larger than common skimmers and male body turns powdery white from thorax to the middle of abdomen but this species is more bluish.
    Female body stays brownish yellow like common skimmers.
    Common skimmers have blue green eye but this species have black or brownish black.
    Abdomen is thick and built.
    Main foods are insects, flies, mosquitos, butterflies and moths.

    ●Length  about 50 to 60 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  May to about November
  • Orthetrum japonicum japonicum Libellulidae
    Orthetrum japonicum japonicum
    Orthetrum japonicum japonicum Libellulidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found at watersides of swamps, paddy fields, idle farmlands and ponds from flatlands to low elevations.
    Adults fly from spring to early summer.
    The abdomen of male adults become bluish white and female body is same as common skimmer but body size of this species is smaller.
    It is easy to identify the difference from common skimmers because the abdomen of this species is rather fatty and base of the wings are brownish.

    ●Length  about 37 to 45 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  April to about May
  • Sympetrum frequens Libellulidae
    Sympetrum frequens
    Sympetrum frequens Libellulidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Is most frequently seen dragonflies and also named as Aka-Tombo literally meaning red dragonfly and has long been used in poetries but head and thorax of this species do not turn red.
    The abdomen of male adults turns from orange to deep red with age.
    After adult emergence in paddy fields or swamps on hills around June, move to higher mountains to avoid hot summer weather.
    As they grow, around September, they move back to flatland or low mountains.
    They have reduced in numbers compare to the past, but still found in grassland or idle land apart from the city.
    Similar species, sympetrum darwinianum, whole body turns red and found in flatland even in summer.
    Main foods are small incects including flies and mosquitos.

    ●Length  about 35 to 45 mm
    ●Adults Flight Season  June to about October
  • Sympetrum pedemontanum elatum Libellulidae
    Sympetrum pedemontanum elatum
    Sympetrum pedemontanum elatum Libellulidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found at watersides along slow-flowing streams, paddy fields and ponds from flatland to mountains.
    Body turns red like sympetrum frequens, thorax and abdomen of male adults turns red with age.
    Tip of front and back wings has brownish sash like patterns that is unique to this species so it is easy to identify.
    Body of female adults does not turn red and rather reddish brown.
    Have rectangular patterns, red for male and white for female.
    Main foods are small insects that they catch while flying.

    ●Length  about 30 to 40 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about September
  • Anotogaster sieboldii (Golden-ringed Dragonfly) Cordulegastridae
    Anotogaster sieboldii (Golden-ringed Dragonfly)
    Anotogaster sieboldii (Golden-ringed Dragonfly) Cordulegastridae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, Sado Island, Tsushima, Yaku Island and Amami Oshima.
    The largest dragonfly in Japan and its body length become up to about 11 cm.
    Found at streams and swamps in flatland to low elevations, and at streams in mountains but seen in city area on rare occasions.
    Their body is quite appealing because large eyes are dark green and body is black with yellow regularly placed stripes so it is appealing.
    Main foods are small insects and catch them while flying.
    Male adults hold territory and patrol within the area.
    Female adults hovers dipping abdomen beneath water and lay eggs.

    ●Length  about 90 to 100 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about October
  • Mnais pruinosa Calopterygidae
    Mnais pruinosa
    Mnais pruinosa Calopterygidae
    Main region: Wide areas of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    In Calopterygidae family, body shape is the larger version of damselflies found in clear streams from flatlands to mountains and streams in mountains as its Japanese name Kawa-Tombo literally meaning river dragonfly states.
    Front and back wing are almost the same size and fly flutteringly and elegantly.
    Color of wings varies among species and regions from reddish brown, light orange to clear.
    Body color at young adults is metallic shiny green but it turns powdery white with age.
    Main foods are small insects at waterside.

    Length  about 55 to 60 mm
    Adult Flight Season  April to about August
  • Calopteryx cornelia Calopterygidae
    Calopteryx cornelia
    Calopteryx cornelia Calopterygidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found at clear streams and streams from low elevation to mountains.
    Is the largest species of calopterygidae in Japan. Main foods are small insects.
    Transparent deep brownish wings and metallic green abdomen look elegant when slowing flying at waterside.
    Female has white pterostigma at tips of wings and abdomen is brown.
    Male adults hold territory and mate with female fly in the territory.
    Female lays eggs underwater.
    With airy layer trap its body and wings, it can stay underwater nearly one hour.

    ●Length  about 60 to 65 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about September
  • Davidius nanus Gomphidae
    Davidius nanus
    Davidius nanus Gomphidae
    Main region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Tsushima.
    Found at streams from midstream to upstream on hills and mountains.
    It was named after French zoologist Dr. Davidius Nanus in 19th century.
    Body is black with yellow stripes from thorax to abdomen.
    Three yellow spots are large on sides of thorax and the base of front legs of both female and male are yellow.
    Seen at streams around Mt. Takao area from April to May.
    Male hold territory and rest on stones and stay alert while waiting for a female to mate.
    Female hovers in air alone and lay on water surface.

    ●Length  about 40 to 50 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about July
  • Davidius fujiama Gomphidae
    Davidius fujiama
    Davidius fujiama Gomphidae
    Main region: Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found at clear streams near headstreams and streamside from low elevations to mountains.
    Is very similar to davidius nanus but abdomen of male davidius fujiama is mostly black as its Japanese name Kuro-Sanae literally meaning black gomphinae states and no yellow patterns on sides of thorax.
    Middle yellow spots on sides of thorax are smaller and the base of front legs does not have yellow spots so it is easy to identify the difference.
    Female hovers and lay eggs on moss or low-growing plants around waterside.
    Main foods are small insects.
    Emerge from April, adults can be seen until summer.

    ●Length  about 40 to 50 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about July
  • Sieboldius albardae Gomphidae
    Sieboldius albardae
    Sieboldius albardae Gomphidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found at streamside, grassland near watersides from flatland to low elevations.
    Rest on stone or branches with their wings kept outspread.
    Emerge from late May to about August.
    Japanese name Ko-Oniyanma literally meaning small Oniyanma (Anotogaster Sieboldii) but they are in Gomphinae family.
    The largest species in Gomphinae and have small head with same body size and have very long back legs compared to anotogaster sieboldii so it is easy to identified with.
    Main foods are various insects including other dragonflies and cedars.
    Male hold territory and rest on stone or branches and stay alert and patrol within the territory sometimes.

    ●Length  about 80 to 90 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about August
  • Epiophlebia superstes Epiophlebiidae
    Epiophlebia superstes
    Epiophlebia superstes Epiophlebiidae
    Main region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Globally known as “living fossils” because many parts of their body including reproductive organs.
    One other species in epiophlebiidae family remains in Himaraya and North Eastern China.
    Body is similar to gomphidae but wings are like damselflies because the shapes of front and back wings are almost the same.
    Found at upstream or streams surrounded by woods and main foods are small insects including flies, mosquitos. Female lays eggs on stems of plants at waterside and emerged nymphs live between stones in streams.
    Live underwater for seven to eight years, waterside for following one year and then emerge to adults.

    ●Length  about 50 to 60 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  about May
  • Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata Cicadidae
    Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata
    Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata Cicadidae
    They live widely in Hokkaido, main land Honsyu, Shikoku, Kyusyu as well as Tsushima Island and Yakushima Island.
    Thought they inhabit at copses and forests in plain ground and at the mountain areas, they can take a sip of sap.
    They are seen at the park where there are large trees and at the orchard that Japanese pears are grown.
    They are one of national wide popular bees to see most occasionally.
    Male cicadas only shrill among Cicadoidea and their shrilling sounds like ‘Jyu-ey’ or ‘Jour-Jour-Jour-Jour’.
    It is said that their name is taken after this shrilling sound very similar to the frying sound.
    Wings are opacity and dark reddish-brown color with patterns of light and shade here and there.
    Female lays their eggs into the tree bark.
    Eggs incubate about in 1 year.
    The larvae live underground on sap sucking from the tree root, and crawl up to the ground in 6 to 7 years to emerge out of pupa into adult insect.

    ●Length(overall-length from head to wing)  about 50 to 60 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  July to about September
※Quotation from Mount Takao formula application
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