TAKAO 599 MUSEUM

Treasures of Mt. Takao

Insects

Mt. Takao is considered one of the three major habitat of insects along with Minoo (Osaka prefecture) and Kibune (Kyoto prefecture) and it has long been loved by researchers of insects because of number of species and the easy access from the Metropolitan area. There are many insects first found in Mt. Takao and named after "Takao" such as Takao Shachihoko (Hiradonta takaonis Matsumura) and Takao medaka kamikiri (Stenhomalus takaosanus).

  • Vanessa indica(Indian Red Admiral) Nymphalidae
    Vanessa indica(Indian Red Admiral)
    Vanessa indica(Indian Red Admiral) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Nansei Islands.
    Often found in various kinds of places from flatlands to mountains including coastlines, grasslands in high elevations, residential areas and cities.
    Fore wings are strong reddish orange as the Japanese name Aka-tateha literally meaning red-nymphalidae states, with black tips with white spots.
    Hind wings are deep brown with orange edges on the bottom.
    Back of fore wings is quite similar to the front but some have blue spots with spider web-like complicated patterns.
    Adults fly to flowers of cirsium family and clethra barbinervis for nectar, trees for sap and rotten fruits.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in urticaceae family including ramie and boehmeria japonica, and ulmaceae family including Japanese zelkova.

    ●Wingspan  about 55 to 60 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about November
  • Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady) Nymphalidae
    Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)
    Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: All over Japan, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Nansei Islands.
    Found in sunny grasslands from flatlands to mountains at wide range of areas such as open fields, parks, from cities to suburban areas, in farmlands and riversides.
    Similar to vanessa indica found in Mt. Takao, but the color of this species is less reddish on the hind wings.
    Back of wings is also similar to vanessa indica but this species have more white parts and look rather white.
    During the daytime, fly fast over grasslands and gather at flowers of dandelion, cirsium and cosmea for nectar.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of mugwort and edible burdock.
    Sometimes are heavily infested at edible burdock farms and cause damage.

    ●Wingspan  about 40 to 50 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about November
  • Polygonia c-aureum(Comma Butterfly) Nymphalidae
    Polygonia c-aureum(Comma Butterfly)
    Polygonia c-aureum(Comma Butterfly) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu and Shikoku.
    Found in grasslands and riverbeds from flatlands to low elevations, prefer sunny environment and also often found in residential areas and parks.
    The front side of wings are orangey red-brown with many black spots and small blue spots at the bottom.
    Female is lighter red-brown.
    Back of wings has black lines along wing veins and white to brown shaded wavy patterns resembling dead leaves.
    During daytime, fly closer to the ground in grasslands and feed on nectar of annual fleabane.
    Also gather around tree sap and rotten fruits.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in cannabaceae family including Japanese hop, cannabis and Humulus lupulus var. cordifolius.

    ●Wingspan  about 50 to 60 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about November
  • Nymphalis anthomelas (Scarce Tortoiseshell) Nymphalidae
    Nymphalis anthomelas (Scarce Tortoiseshell)
    Nymphalis anthomelas (Scarce Tortoiseshell) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in forests and woods from low elevations to mountains.
    Japanese name Hiodoshi-cho literally meaning scarlet threaded suit of armor was named because the body color is scarlet which remind people of scarlet threaded suit of armor.
    Wing color is orange with many big black spots in the center and black edges with blue spots.
    Back of wings have bark-like patterns, thus it is hard to recognize when they rest on tree.
    Spend winter after emerged to adults and are seen from early spring around flowers of cerasus ×yedoensis A.V.Vassil.
    ‘Somei-yoshino’ and Japanese apricot.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in ulmaceae family including Chinese Hackberry and Salicaceae family.

    ●Wingspan  about 60 to 71 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about November
  • Kaniska canace (Blue Admiral) Nymphalidae
    Kaniska canace (Blue Admiral)
    Kaniska canace (Blue Admiral) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Nansei Islands.
    Found in sunny woods from flatlands to mountains.
    Have lazuline colored belt-like pattern runs halfway around the wings.
    Tips of fore wings are wide and extended and female have more rounded edges.
    Back of wings is dark brown and resembles bark or dead leaves color.
    Spend winter after emerged to adults and are seen from early spring and gather around tree sap and rotten fruits.
    Hardly fly to flowers.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in liliaceae family including China root, catbrier, tiger lily, lilium speciosum, smilax sieboldii and tricyrtis affinis.

    ●Wingspan  about 50 to 65 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  March to about November
  • Araschnia burejana Nymphalidae
    Araschnia burejana
    Araschnia burejana Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okushiri Island and Sado Island.
    Found in forests and grasslands from flatlands to mountains.
    Also found at streamsides and mountain trails.
    Japanese name Saka-hachi-cho literally meaning number eight in Chinese character placed upside-down butterfly was named because white patterns on wings resemble Chinese characters of number eight placed upside-down.
    Wing color differs by season they emerge.
    Ones in spring are dark brown with irregular orange patterns and white belt-like pattern is less distinct.
    Ones in summer are black color and white belt-like pattern is distinct along with orange lines.
    During the daytime, fly closer to the ground and feed on nectar of plants in apiaceae family.
    Also fly to dungs of animals and suck water.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in urticaceae family.

    ●Wingspan  about 35 to 45 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about October
  • Sasakia charonda (Great Purple Emperor) Nymphalidae
    Sasakia charonda (Great Purple Emperor)
    Sasakia charonda (Great Purple Emperor) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Sado Island.
    Found in woods or beechwood forests from lowlands to low elevations.
    Is the largest species in nymphalidae family in Honshu and is a national butterfly of Japan.
    Is known as a beautiful butterfly and wings of male are black-brown with white and yellow spots and the base of wings are bluish purple color, hence the Japanese name Oo-murasaki literally meaning big purple.
    Female is brown. Flies fast and feed on sap from sawtooth oak and quercus serrata and juice from rotten fruits.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of Chinese hackberry and celtis jessoensis.
    Male shows strong territorial habit and fly over trees and even chase birds such as sparrows.

    ●Wingspan  about 75 to 110 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about August
  • Hestina persimilis japonica (Siren) Nymphalidae
    Hestina persimilis japonica (Siren)
    Hestina persimilis japonica (Siren) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Some parts of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island and Tsushima.
    Found in woods and green spaces from flatlands to low elevations, and also at parks and farmland in cities.
    The front of wings is black with many irregularly placed white spots.
    Has similar patterns on the back but color is rather brown.
    Face feature is unique, compound eyes that comprise of numbers of ommatidia and colored orange.
    Mouth is bright yellow and very appealing.
    During the daytime, flies over woods and surrounding areas.
    Fly to rotten fruits and often suck water on the ground.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of Chinese hackberry and celtis jessoensis.
    Lately, a foreign specie, hestina assimilis with red spots on hind wings is seen in many places that is supposed to be seen only in Amami Island.
    It is considered that this is man-caused and become an issue in Japan.

    ●Wingspan  about 60 to 80 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about September
  • Dichorragia nesimachus (Asian Constable Butterfly) Nymphalidae
    Dichorragia nesimachus (Asian Constable Butterfly)
    Dichorragia nesimachus (Asian Constable Butterfly) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, Sado Island, Tsushima and Nansei Islands.
    Found in sunny woods and mountain trails from flatlands to low elevations.
    The patterns on wings are like marbling with Indian ink, hence the Japanese name Suminagashi literally meaning marbling with Indian ink.
    Wing colors on the front is light Indian ink with shiny blue-green that is unique color and patterns.
    And wing colors on the back is dark brown with distinct white patterns.
    Proboscis is red this is also unique feature of this species.
    During daytime, fly fast and gathers around sap of sawtooth oak, rotten fruits and dungs of animals.
    Also suck water on the ground.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of meliosma myrianth.
    Male shows territorial habit at mountain peak of open spaces in forests.

    ●Wingspan  about 55 to 65 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about August
  • Limenitis camilla (White Admiral) Nymphalidae
    Limenitis camilla (White Admiral)
    Limenitis camilla (White Admiral) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.
    Found in woods and green spaces from flatlands to mountains.
    Japanese name Ichi-monji-cho literally meaning one straight line butterfly is named because it has white belt-like patterns in the center of each wing that is very distinct.
    The back of wings is red-brown and also have white belt-like pattern along with black spots.
    Female body is larger than male and wings are round edges that are to distinguish them from male.
    During daytime, fly slowly close to the ground in sunny open grasslands and fly over to flowers of Japanese honeysuckles and clethra barbinervis for nectar.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in caprifoliaceae family including Japanese honeysuckles, lonicera morrowii and Weigela coraeensis.

    ●Wingspan  about 50 to 65 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about October
  • Argynnis paphia (Silver-washed Fritillary) Nymphalidae
    Argynnis paphia (Silver-washed Fritillary)
    Argynnis paphia (Silver-washed Fritillary) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku an, Kyushu.
    Found in woods and mountain trails from flatlands to mountains.
    Adults emerge (the last step to become an adult) in early summer, go dormant in summer time and become active in autumn.
    Wing color is dark orange with many black spots creating leopard-like patterns.
    Male has four thick black lines in the center of fore wings that can be distinguished from female.
    The back of hind wings is slightly green, hence the Japanese name Midori-hyo-mon literally meaning green leopard-like patterns.
    Resemble the anadyomene fritillary but this species has white lines on the back of hind wings.
    Main food for adults is nectar of boneset.
    Fly fast from flowers to flowers in forests.
    Male sucks water.
    Caterpillars feed on plants in violaceae.

    ●Wingspan  about 65 to 70 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about September
  • Nephargynnis anadyomene ( Anadyomene Fritillary) Nymphalidae
    Nephargynnis anadyomene ( Anadyomene Fritillary)
    Nephargynnis anadyomene ( Anadyomene Fritillary) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Sado Island.
    Found in forests, mountain trails and valleys from low elevations to mountains.
    Wing color is orange but female is darker with white spots at edges.
    Also many black spots create leopard-like pattern, hence the Japanese name Kumogata-hyo-mon literally meaning cloud leopard-like patterns.
    The back of wings is grayish yellow-green with lightly white shaded in some parts.
    Japanese name come from these white patterns resembling clouds.
    These white patterns are unique to this species so it is easy to distinguish them from other butterflies in argynnini tribe.
    Have different biological cycle than other butterflies, adults emerge around May, go dormant in summer and become active in autumn.
    Adults feed on nectar of plants in cirsium family.
    Caterpillar feed on leaves of viola.

    ●Wingspan  about 65 to 75 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about October
  • Argyreus hyperbius(Indian Fritillary) Nymphalidae
    Argyreus hyperbius(Indian Fritillary)
    Argyreus hyperbius(Indian Fritillary) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Honshu (West of Kanto region), Shikoku, Kyushu and Nansei Islands.
    Found in southern areas as seen from main regions.
    Found in grasslands and green spaces from flatlands to low elevations, and also at parks and farmlands.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of pansy, thus it is often seen in cities.
    Japanese name Tsuma-guro -hyo-mon literally meaning corner pointed black leopard-like patterns was named because tips of fore wings are black that is unique to female and male have leopard-like patterns on entire body.
    Have black edges at the bottom of hind wings that can be distinguished from other butterflies in argynnini tribe.
    Have light brown body color with yellow-brown leopard-like patterns on the back of wings.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in violaceae family.

    ●Wingspan  about 60 to 70 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  June to about October
  • Neptis philyra Nymphalidae
    Neptis philyra
    Neptis philyra Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island and Tsushima.
    Found in forests and green spaces with plants in aceraceae family from flatlands to mountains.
    Have distinct white lines on black-brown wings, as Japanese name Mistuji-cho literally meaning three lines butterfly states.
    Similar to common glider and neptis aiwina but the upper lines on wings are thinner and straight on this species.
    Have similar patterns on the back of wings but base color is more brownish.
    Adults feed on water and dungs of animals not flowers.
    Caterpillars feed on plants in aceraceae family including Matsumurae maple and Japanese maple.
    Flying style is unique; fly by flattering wings for a short while and then glide (without flattering wings).

    ●Wingspan  about 55 to 70 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  May to about August
  • Neptis sappho (Common Glider) Nymphalidae
    Neptis sappho (Common Glider)
    Neptis sappho (Common Glider) Nymphalidae
    Main Region: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island, Tsushima and Yaku Island.
    Found in forests and woods from flatlands to mountains.
    Also found at parks and farmlands.
    Have three distinct white lines on black-brown wings.
    The upper lines split in two whereas similar neptis philyra has straight lines.
    Color on the back of wings is reddish brown with white belt-like patterns.
    Fly by flattering wings and glide just like neptis philyra does.
    Adults feed on nectar of Ligustrum obtusifolium, rotten fruits, tree sap and dungs of animals.
    Caterpillars feed on leaves of plants in Fabaceae family including kudzu.

    ●Wingspan  about 44 to 55 mm
    ●Adult Flight Season  April to about October
※Quotation from Mount Takao formula application
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