TAKAO 599 MUSEUM

Treasures of Mt. Takao

Birds

One of great attraction of Mt. Takao is to be able to observe all kinds of birds. Its number is almost 150 kinds which is one third of the species confirmed in all over Japan. Mt. Takao is the paradise for birds and one of the best place for bird watching. Various kinds of birds and its lifestyle could be observed including summer birds come in spring time, winter birds come from the higher altitude and hearing beautiful bird songs during breeding season.

  • Phasianus soemmerringii (Copper Pheasant) Bamboo Partridge
    Phasianus soemmerringii (Copper Pheasant)
    Phasianus soemmerringii (Copper Pheasant) Selected
    Is in phasianidae family only distributed in Japan. This species is larger than Japanese pheasant and the tail of males are longer tail than head to body length. Whereas Japanese pheasant prefer sunny areas, this species prefer shady forests. The body color is brownish for both male and female that blends in the background and is not easy to find them. The voice is not too loud “coo coo coo coo”. Walk between trees and hunt for insects, earthworms, seeds of plants and trees and buds of trees. The breeding season is from April to June, male become more active and do drumming (make sound by fluttering wings and make “doo doo doo doo” sounds) to announce their territory. Build a nest in hollows of a tree by collecting fallen leaves and tree barks and lay seven to ten eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length (head to tail)  Male about 125 cm / Female about 55 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Bambusicola thoracica (Bamboo Partridge) Bamboo Partridge
    Bambusicola thoracica (Bamboo Partridge)
    Bambusicola thoracica (Bamboo Partridge) Bamboo Partridge
    Are foreign species native to southern China. After released 20 of them in Tokyo and Kanagawa prefectures in 1919 (Taisho 8), are now distributed throughout Japan. Found in woods, shrubs and grasslands in flatlands. Live in a group from autumn to early spring and feed on seeds, nuts, young leaves and buds of trees and earthworms. Their voice sound like “come here” (chottokoi) in Japanese and had often been used in TV programs, movies and samurai dramas as birds live in satoyama (satoyama is where residential area and woods space coexist in rural area). The breeding season is from May to June, dig shallow s in shrubs and build a nest with fallen plants and lay seven to eight eggs in a season.

    ●Body length  about 27 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)

    (未翻訳)鳴き声を聞く

  • Anas poecilorhyncha (Spotbill Duck) Duck
    Anas poecilorhyncha (Spotbill Duck)
    Anas poecilorhyncha (Spotbill Duck) Duck
    Are only duck distributed throughout Japan. Found in waterside including lakes, ponds, rivers, paddy fields and ponds at parks. Even raise chicks at man-made ponds at office streets in cities often covered on TV programs. Most female ducks have brighter colored wings but this species have almost the same color with male. Are normally active at night but after increased in number, often found them at parks in cities being fed. Prefer fruits of plants but are omnivorous and also feed on fish and insects. The breeding season is from April to early July. Build a nest with fallen leaves and plants covered with feather of parents’ breast in shrubs near waterside and lay eight to thirteen eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length  about 61 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Streptopelia orientalis (Rufous Turtle Dove) Dove
    Streptopelia orientalis (Rufous Turtle Dove)
    Streptopelia orientalis (Rufous Turtle Dove) Dove
    The Japanese name Kijibato was named because the red-brown feather patterns resemble pheasants. Are also called as Yamabato literally meaning birds in mountains but they are distributed widely even at parks and street trees in cities. Rest on electric wires and chirp with low voice “coo coo coo”. Feed mainly on nuts of trees and plants but also breads and cereals. Married couple lives together and normally have good relationship. During breeding season, male bow repeatedly and fly upward fast and fly down for courtship. Build a simple nest with twigs from April to July and lay two eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length  about 33 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Sphenurus sieboldii (Japanese Green Pigeon) Dove
    Sphenurus sieboldii (Japanese Green Pigeon)
    Sphenurus sieboldii (Japanese Green Pigeon) Selected
    Are beautiful birds with yellow-green body with a light blue bill. Male and female have almost the same body color but male have purple feather on wings. Live in a group in broad-leaved forests with quercus acutissima, maple trees, quercus crispula blume and hardly ever come out to open spaces. Feed on nuts like acorns, buds and fruits of trees. From early summer to autumn, fly out to the coast to drink seawater and to hot springs for salty water. During breeding season, males chirp like “oh ah oh” with lonely tones. In June, build a dish-shaped nest with twigs and vines on a tree and lay two eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length  about 33 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round, and wandering bird, bird that have different areas for breeding and spending winter)

    (未翻訳)鳴き声を聞く

  • Columba livia (Rock Dove) Dove
    Columba livia (Rock Dove)
    Columba livia (Rock Dove) Dove
    Is seen them daily at parks and shrines and commonly known as “dobato” in Japanese. This species is a foreign species breeded to courier pigeons in Europe. Most of them have shiny purple and green feathers around neck and two black lines on wings but wings vary to black, gray, nut-brown due to breeding. Have an unique habit to drink water directly because most of birds needs to hold them in a mouth once and swallow with their head lifted. Raise chicks with secretions called pigeon milk produced in crop.

    ●Size  about 31 to 34 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Gorsakius goisagi (Japanese Night Heron) Egret
    Gorsakius goisagi (Japanese Night Heron)
    Gorsakius goisagi (Japanese Night Heron) Egret
    Is in ardeidae family breed in summer only in Japan. Live alone or in pairs in shady forests near streams of low elevations. The body color is dark brown for both male and female. Mostly rest under shrubs during daytime and become active at late afternoon and hunt for earthworms, crayfish, frogs and fish in streams or ponds. When sensing dangers, lift a bill upward and stand still camouflaging their body to tree branches. The breeding season is from May to July and male chirp “boo boo” with low tones voices repeatedly to ask female to mate. Build a dish-shaped nest with twigs on a branch extended over streams and lay four to five eggs in a season. After nestling in summer, fly to Southeast Asia to spend winter.

    ●Body Length  about 49 cm
    ●Season  April to September (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night Heron) Egret
    Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night Heron)
    Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night Heron) Egret
    Just like other species in ardeidae family, create habit area called colony in forests from flatlands to hills. Stay in a colony during daytime and hunt for fish, frogs and crayfish at waterside such as rivers, bogs and ponds at night. Wait for preys to come closer and catch immediately with bills. Male and female have same body color but some says that they are like penguins. Adults have two decorative feathers on the back of head. The young adult have white patterns on brown body and are called as Hoshigoi and looks completely different from adult birds. The breeding season is from April to August. Build nests with twigs on trees in a colony. Lay four to six eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length  about 57 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron) Egret
    Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)
    Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron) Egret
    The largest heron distributed in Japan. Have skinny body with long legs and neck. The body color of male and female is bluish gray. Adults have decorative black feathers on head and not on young birds. Live near coastline, mudflats, rivers, lakes, ponds and swamps and sometimes come to streams in Mt. Takao. Rest in a group during daytime and hunt for preys from late afternoon to the following morning. Feed on fish, frogs, crayfish and sometimes snakes, rats and baby birds. Catch small fish with a bill but catch large fish by piercing them with the tip of bill. Build a colony for breeding and build a dish-shaped nest with twigs on the tall trees in forests. The breeding season is from April to May and lays three to six eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length  about 93 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Egretta garzetta (Little Egret) Egret
    Egretta garzetta (Little Egret)
    Egretta garzetta (Little Egret) Egret
    White species in ardeidae family are called egret and this species is small sized egret. The largest one is great egret, the next largest one is intermediate egret and the smallest one is this species. This species have yellow base of bill and toe, which is to identify this species from other two species. Live in lakes, ponds, paddy fields, bogs and mudflat and even rivers in cities. Build a colony with other egrets. Fly to waterside in the early morning to hunt for prey and come back to the colony in the late afternoon. Prefers fish, frogs and aquatic insects. Shake legs in shallow water to flush out prey hidden in muds. The breeding season is from April to August. Build a dish-shaped nest with twigs and fallen branches and lay four to six eggs.

    ●Body Length  about 61 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
  • Cuculus poliocephalus (Little Cuckoo) Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus poliocephalus (Little Cuckoo)
    Cuculus poliocephalus (Little Cuckoo) Selected
    Is the same family with cuckoo and found in bright forests in low elevations. Male warbles loudly “kyo kyo kyo” sounding like “tokkyo kyoka-kyoku” literally meaning patent approval office, which is a very famous tongue twister. It also sounded like “hototogisu”, hence the Japanese name Hototogisui was named.
    The back of adult birds is gray with black stripe patterns on chest. Male and female have same body color but some female are red-brown. Mainly feed on insects and hairy caterpillars and hornworms are favorites. Are brood parasites which means to lay eggs on other bird’s nest. Lay eggs often in bush warbler’s nest and the color of eggs are brown similar to the ones of bush warbler. The breeding season is from June to August. Take one egg out from the nest and lay one egg instead. In autumn, fly to Southeast Asia to spent winter.

    ●Body Length  about 28 cm
    ●Season  May to October (Summer bird, fly to one area from spring to summer for breeding and fly back to southern areas in autumn.)

    (未翻訳)鳴き声を聞く

  • Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo) Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo)
    Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo) Common Cuckoo
    Come back to Japan in spring from the place where they spent winter. Live in sunny grassland with common reeds or highlands with Japanese larch. Live alone normally and rest on trees or electric wires to keep an eye on what is happening in surrounding areas. During breeding season, male warble “cuckoo” loudly and female chirp “pe pe pe pe” sharply. Prefers hairy caterpillars and hornworms but sometimes feed on eggs of birds and chicks. Are brood parasites which means to lay eggs on other bird’s nest. Lay eggs in nests of birds in acrocephalidae family, bull-headed shrike and bunting. The color of eggs varies but normally it becomes close to host birds’ ones. The breeding season is from May to August. Take one egg out from the nest and lay one egg instead. Hatched chick drop other eggs out from the nest.

    ●Body Length  about 35 cm
    ●Season  May to October (Summer bird, fly to one area from spring to summer for breeding and fly back to southern areas in autumn.)
  • Caprimulgus indicus (Jungle Nightjar) Jungle Nightjar
    Caprimulgus indicus (Jungle Nightjar)
    Caprimulgus indicus (Jungle Nightjar) Jungle Nightjar
    Found in grasslands and mountain forests. Sleep on tree branches during daytime and become active in late afternoon. Open wide mouth and hover low without making sound with feathers and suck moths or gold beetles that comes into their mouth. The body color of male and female is almost the same and black brown body with fine complicated patterns. The breeding season is from May to August. Male hold territory and fly over trees and chirp “qyo qyo qyo”. Does not build a nest and lay two to three eggs in a season on the ground covered with leaf soils in open areas in forests. In autumn, fly to Southeast Asia to spent winter.

    ●Body Length  about 29 cm
    ●Season  April to about October (Summer bird, fly to one area from spring to summer for breeding and fly back to southern areas in autumn.)
  • Apus affinis (House Swift) House Swift
    Apus affinis (House Swift)
    Apus affinis (House Swift) House Swift
    Are small sized pacific swift and was not in the old illustrated bird book in Japan. This species is observed from 1960 (Showa 35), and first confirmed them of breeding in 1967 (Showa 42). After that, are increased in number and also found them in Tama area and Tokyo 23 wards area. Chirp “chu li li li” and hunt for flies and mosquitoes in the air. Build nests with muds and feathers on the concrete walls underneath the elevated railways and roads. Sometimes borrow nests of house martins. The breeding season is from April to June and lay two to three eggs in a season. Birds in apodiformes order are the ones able to stretch four toes forward which enable this species to rest on vertical concrete walls.

    ●Body Length  about 13 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round.)
  • Milvus migrans (Black Kite) Buzzard
    Milvus migrans (Black Kite)
    Milvus migrans (Black Kite) Selected
    Is in a accipitridae family found at lakes, riverbeds and cities. Chirp “peep hyo lo lo lo” while hovering in a round route. Also known as tombi in Japanese. Is normally in a group except breeding season and hunt for preys from early in the morning. Feed on dead animals, fish, insects and frogs and sometimes raid garbage. The body color for male and female is almost the same and adults have dark-brown body. When looking up the sky while they are flying, their trapezoidal-shaped tails are clearly seen. The breeding season is from March to May and mostly in pairs and chirp frequently. Build a large sized dish-shaped nest with layers of twigs on a tall tree. Lay two to three eggs in a season.

    ●Body Length  Male about 58 cm / Female about 68 cm
    ●Season  January to December (resident bird, bird that stay in the same area all year round)
※Quotation from Mount Takao formula application
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